The tool SM-01 computes and plots static response (transverse displacement, slope, bending moment and shear force) of a uniform Euler-Bernoulli beam with various end conditions and subject to transverse loads. The tool also gives analytical expressions of beam response, determines the reactions at the end supports, and finds the locations of maximum bending moment and shear force along the beam length.

In addition, a tutorial on how to use the tool in computation is provided and a subject review on fundamental theories and useful formulas is presented.

**Consider a simply-supported beam in the following figure, which has length L = 1 and bending stiffness EI = 25, and is subject to a pointwise force f _{0}=1.2 at its midpoint.**

The input in the tool is

After clicking "Run", the results will be shown in another page. The static responses of the uniform beam are

The analytical results are also shown as follows

Analytical Expression of Beam Response

Beam Response for 0 <= x <=0.5

Displacement w(x) = (-0.004)x^{3} + (-0)*x^{2} + (0.003)*x + (-0)

Rotation dw(x)/dx = (-0.012)*x^{2} + (-0)*x + (0.003)

Bending moment M(x) = (-0.6)*x + (-0)

Shear force Q(x) = (-0.6)

Beam Response for 0.5 <= x <=1.0

Displacement w(x) = (0.004)*x^{3} + (-0.012)*x^{2} + (0.009)*x + (-0.001)

Rotation dw(x)/dx = (0.012)*x^{2} + (-0.024)*x + (0.009)

Bending moment M(x) = (0.6)*x + (-0.6)

Shear force Q(x) = (0.6)

Maximum Beam Response

Maximum displacement = 0.001, location x = 0.5

Maximum rotation (degree) = 0.17188734, location x = 0

Maximum bending moment = -0.2996997, location x = 0.5

Maximum shear force = -0.6, location x = 0

Reactions at Two Ends of the Beam

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Sign Convention for support reactions:

* Positive moment Mc: counterclockwise

* Positive force Rc: upward

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At left boundary (x = 0): Mc = -0, Rc = -0.6

At right boundary (x = L): Mc = -0, Rc = -0.6

**Fig. 1** A uniform Euler-Bernoulli beam under static loads

The transverse displacement (deflection) w(x) of a uniform Euler-Bernoulli beam under static loads, as shown in Fig. 1, is governed by the differential equation

where E is Young’s modulus, I and L are the moment of inertia of beam cross section area and beam length, respectively. The EI is known as the bending stiffness of the beam. Here by “uniform beam”, the beam cross section area and EI are assumed to be constant along the beam length (x). For the loads shown in Fig. 1, f(x) can be written as

where q(x) is a distributed external load, f_{0} is a pointwise force applied at x_{f}, τ is a torque applied at x_{τ}, and δ(*) is the Dirac delta function.

The boundary conditions of the beam can be written as

where B_{01}, B_{02}, B_{L1}, and B_{L2} are spatial differential operators. Four types of beam boundary conditions are given in Table 1.

**Table 1.** Boundary conditions

The static response of a Euler-Bernoulli beam includes:

- Transverse displacement or deflection w(x)
- Rotation or slope
- Bending moment
- Shear force

The positive direction of w(x) is upward; the positive direction of rotation is counterclockwise; and the sign convention of bending moment and shear force is given in Fig. 2.

**Fig. 2** Sign convention of bending moment and shear force

Except for free ends, the boundaries listed in Table 1 exert reaction moments and/or reaction forces to the beam. Because the reactions support the beam by balancing the external forces, the boundaries are also called supports. The reactions are represented by

where w'= dw/ dx, M_{c} and R_{c} are reaction moment and force, respectively. The sign convention of reactions is shown in Fig. 3.

**Fig. 3** Sign convention of reactions

The problem of static analysis of a uniform Euler-Bernoulli beam is to determine the beam response (displacement, slope, bending moment and shear force) by solving the governing differential equation subject to the boundary conditions.

Several methods are available for static analysis of Euler-Bernoulli beams. For analytical solutions, the method of singularity functions, the boundary value approach, and the distributed transfer function method can be used. For numerical solutions, the finite element method is often applied. For detail of these methods, interested users can refer to the references at the end of this document. The on-line tool SM-01 delivers exact beam response via the distributed transfer function method in a systematic and efficient manner; see Pages 21-23 of Reference 1.

Static beam deflections in some cases are given in Table 2. The bending moment and shear force in each case can be determined by M=EIw'' and Q=EIw''' .

**Table 2.** Static beam deflection

1. Yang, B., 2005, Stress, Strain, and Structural Dynamics: An Interactive Handbook of Formulas, Solutions, and MATLAB toolboxes, Elsevier Science.

2. Young, W.C., 1989, Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain, 6th edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.

3. Bedford, A., and Liechti, K. M., 2000, Mechanics of Materials, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

4. Gere, J. M., and Stephen P. Timoshenko, S. P., 1997, Mechanics of Materials, 4th edition, PWS Publishing Co., Boston.

5. Popov, E. P., 1998, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 2nd ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

6. Riley, W.F., Sturges, L. D., and Morris, D. H., 1999, Mechanics of Materials, 5th ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

7. Shames, I. H., and Pitarresi, J. M., 2000, Introduction to Solid Mechanics, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.